Weihos Bokos http://www.weihos.eu Treasure hunt in ancient writings! Sat, 20 May 2017 16:53:10 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.8.2 Independent Swedish Media http://www.weihos.eu/2017/05/independent-swedish-media/ http://www.weihos.eu/2017/05/independent-swedish-media/#respond Mon, 15 May 2017 21:11:16 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=1148 Somewhat off the topics of this blog, as most people in Sweden today are unable to find even a single newspaper that is independent of the parties that are represented in parliament, and as this situation has turned the state into a reality-averse bubble, here’s a selection of relatively independent media.

Comments? = Are comments usually allowed; according to which comment system?
G = Google/Blogspot, W = WordPress, ✔︎ = In-house.

Free? = Is all content free or does some content require subscription?

Ac.? = Are they independent of state financed academic institutions?

Company/Ass. (Brands) Comments? Free? Ac.? Link
Cornucopia? G ✔︎ ✔︎ http://cornucopia.cornubot.se
In Beijing W ✔︎ ✔︎ http://inbeijing.se/bulletin/
Blendow (Dagens Juridik) ✔︎ + ✔︎ http://www.dagensjuridik.se
IDG ✔︎ ✔︎ http://www.idg.se
Spanaren ✔︎ ✔︎ http://spanaren.se
I Öst ✔︎ ✔︎ https://iost.nu
Curie ✔︎ ✔︎ Nope http://www.tidningencurie.se
Forskning och Framsteg ✔︎ Nope http://fof.se
FT News Gr. OÜ (Fria Tider) + ✔︎ http://www.friatider.se

Comments to this article that mention or suggests news papers or media sites that receive grants from the state (Presstöd/Partistöd), that publish whole articles from the monopoly news agency or that are controlled within the so called Public Service [sicut] framework, will be removed as the topic is independent media. Comments that suggest news sites that might really be independent are most welcome, as are corrections.

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New Testament Papyrus chart http://www.weihos.eu/2016/11/new-testament-papyrus-chart/ http://www.weihos.eu/2016/11/new-testament-papyrus-chart/#respond Sun, 20 Nov 2016 21:01:55 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=1136 nt-papyrusattest-w

Click for full size.
Papyrus fragments are typically dated paleographically to a span of 50 years, so their location within this chart should be understood as very approximate. A few mss were left out, either because they contain very few words or because, as is the case with P98 of Revelation chapter 1, they are unusually difficult to date.

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Children — Barn http://www.weihos.eu/2016/09/children-barn/ http://www.weihos.eu/2016/09/children-barn/#respond Fri, 30 Sep 2016 23:06:21 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=1123 Don’t worry! I won’t post pictures of mine. Perhaps because I don’t have any, or perhaps because I care about my readers.

A few brief reflections however …

If you are a woman and want to know if a man likes children or not, ask him! Don’t ask another man “Does X like children?”, or actually, you can ask that question but ask the man himself too, then you’ll find out if the first guy is a liar. If another man says X doesn’t like children, there’s still 90 % chance that he does — at least his own.

In Yorkshire barn is a dialectal word for children. In Sweden barn is the word in standard language. In Gothic it’s barn. In Syriac it’s yalud (infant) or taly. However son is bar ܒܪ . Coincidence?

Skäggebarn is a new word in Swedish. It is made up of two pieces — skägg = beard, barn = barn. And then there is the connecting vowel. Swedish doesn’t use as many connecting vowels as Danish and Scanian so the form skäggbarn could have been expected, and indeed it occurs but rarely perhaps even more often than skäggebarn (corrected based on feedback from a reader).

A skäggebarn is a man aged above 18, who travels to a foreign country (such as Sweden) and upon asylum claims that he has lost his ID-card and that he is x years old, where x << 18. This simple deception has been well known for at least five years and it is not clear why the migration authority insisted on getting fooled in the face of criticism. Today, they have been ordered by the government to switch to a restrictive extreme, as if a car driver who has been in the left roadside ditch could make up for her mistake by slipping into the right one as well.

I found it curious that /e/ was used for connecting vowel here. Some investigation revealed that the forms with /e/ were mostly used by people from central Sweden. Scanians used /a/ at least as often. The connecting vowels are not completely understood. I suggest /a/ is partitive and /e/ is locative or instrumental. Lucazin1 suggest it is genitive and should be /a/ for masculine and neuter nouns, and /e/ for most feminine except some old irregular ones. In this case our rules agree and it should be skäggabarn in Scanian.

1 Utkast till ortografi över det Skånska språket, tabell 12.1 sid 124.

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With Lorries in Traffic — Q&A http://www.weihos.eu/2016/08/with-lorries-in-traffic-qa/ http://www.weihos.eu/2016/08/with-lorries-in-traffic-qa/#respond Mon, 08 Aug 2016 11:12:28 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=1116 Why did the lorry flash its high beams?
When a lorry passes another, it is usually hard for the passing driver to know when the rear end of his trailer has passed and it is safe to move back to the right lane. The one who gets passed will therefore often flash the high beams as a signal indicating when it is time to change lanes.

Other resons may include: salute a friend, signal to an oncoming to switch to low beams, mistake when fumbling for another control and a signal that something is wrong with the vehicle ahead.

How best to pass?
Start out from a point ca 20 meters behind the lorry. If you are closer, its driver won’t see you and you won’t see what happens ahead of the lorry. When you have decided to pass, you accelerate for one or two seconds while blinking, then move to the passing lane and keep accelerating. It isn’t remarkably dangerous to drive beside a lorry in a two-laned road, but it will be easier for everybody if the overtaking is done quickly and decisively.
Texas Department of Transportation recommends:
“Always leave at least four car lengths between the back of your car and the front of any large truck you pass”. This is because lorries have longer breaking distance than person cars, so if you need to jam the brakes, the lorry will need this extra distance to stop. Swedish lorries usually have good brakes, so in practice the risk is not much higher if we move back 15 meters in front of the lorry than 20 meters, and almost all drivers handle this well.
A driver of a car shouldn’t have to keep track of a lorry’s blind spots. However in this case consider that a passing car or motorcycle dwells for a moment in a blind spot to the left of the driver’s cab. If they cut in front of the lorry immediately after passing, it can trigger the truck driver’s brake reflex, and if it happens often, the driver will become jaded, which is dangerous.
Consider not overtaking if it slopes downhill or if on top of a hill. Lorries otherwise driving 80 km/h will often reach 90 or 100 km/h when it descends. Then they don’t want to brake because they save almost €10 on fuel by keeping the speed. It is a saving for the environment too as you are well aware.

Can I pass in this roundabout?
Some roundabouts have so broad carriage ways that a driver of a private car may get the impression that they have two lanes. They haven’t, unless two lanes are marked in the asfalt. If the roundabout is small, it won’t be possible for a 13m long trailer to keep within a lane of normal width, so the road is broadened. That’s why it is ill-timed to pass trucks, 18-m trailers or busses in such small circuses. Even in roundabouts with short radius but two lanes marked will it be appropriate to avoid a position alongside tractor or trailer. If the roundabout is large — of the kind that is common outside the towns — and has two lanes, then dwelling next to a lorry or bus will be fine.

Truck with trailer in small roundabout

The orange in the picture is a truck with a trailer. It has to be all the way out to the traffic islands and the edge of the road with its nose to make the left rear wheel clear the curb that marks the inner edge of the road in many roundabouts (see the red rings). A car could easily pass another car, but is better to refrain and treat the roundabout as having just one lane.

A novelty is some municipalities having marked two lanes even in very small roundabouts. Such decisions aren’t necessarily based on more consideration than you as a road-user is expected to perform in a fraction of a second when sharing a circus with a truck. So think for yourself, think out of the box and don’t take for granted that a lorry can stay within a single lane.

What are the risks when overtaking?
There may be something along the right edge of the road that compel the lorry to move to the passing lane or brake. If it rains, a lorry with dual wheels can splash an amazing amount of water on your car and push you off course, and if you were in lee beside the lorry you might be hit by sudden winds when passing. So, keep both hands on the wheel!

Extra passing lane uphill
A max-loaded lorry with trailer can weigh 64 tons in Sweden. It is hard to keep 80 km/h uphill with such a burden. This has been solved in some places by, as long as the slope lasts, providing an extra lane for lighter cars who want to pass heavier trucks.

Lorries and slip roads to motorways
When entering a motorway, one is supposed to adjust one’s speed to that of the traffic on the motorway and find a gap to slip into. Here it is easy to make the mistake to adjust one’s speed to a lorry. However if the max velocity is 120 km/h and a car entering the motorway brakes to move in behind the lorry, it will slip in at approximately 60 km/h. Driving so slow for no good reason should be avoided.
If you find yourself alongside a lorry and you are past the middle of it, feel free to drive faster than it and take the place in front of it.

One of the major reasons why we should blink when exiting roundabouts is because it takes ca 7 seconds for a lorry to accelerate up to 25 km/h and get out with the whole trailer in the circus.
In a heavy traffic roundabout, consequently, the truck will get stuck without getting in. But if any of the cars in the circus blink out, it will give the lorry a chance to accelerate.

If you come from a road that a lorry will turn on to, it may happen that the truck slows down and flashes its high beams. It means you should move first, because it would be hard for the lorry to bring its trailer on to the smaller road without using the space where you are. Remember to give way to other traffic as you go.

Truck flashes high beams to say, please you go first

Pedestrian crossings
It costs a lot of money to brake and accelerate with a lorry, so if you stand at a zebra crossing and a truck brakes, it is time to cross immediately.

Reversing lorries
If a lorry turns on hazard lights in an ordinary street, it will probably reverse. If you are behind it and the reversing lights illuminate, don’t hesitate to pass.
When a truck with dolly and trailer reverse, the driver needs space to move the front of the truck to the right and to the left in order to make the trailer move in the right direction. So, if you see a lorry reversing across a street, even if you are in a hurry, it will get out of your way faster if you leave three meters distance while waiting for it to get off the road.

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Comparison between Bornholmsk and Mainland Scanian sounds http://www.weihos.eu/2016/06/comparison-between-bornholmsk-and-mainland-scanian-sounds/ http://www.weihos.eu/2016/06/comparison-between-bornholmsk-and-mainland-scanian-sounds/#respond Sat, 18 Jun 2016 00:11:03 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=1077 A table which compares the phones of Bornholmsk (Espersen 1908 & Prince 1924) with those in mainland Scanian (from the north-western area according to Lucazin 2010).

Phoneme Bh IPA Scy. IPA words so pronounced
/a/ [a] [ɑ] or [a] land (country/land), kat (cat)
/ā/ [aː] [aː] or [ɑː] fara (travel), kar (man/chap)
/ɑ̄/ [ɑʊ]1 [aʊ̭], [ɑʊ̭] or [ɑː] dag (day), klar (clear)
/e/ [e] [ɛ] fett (fat/grease)
/ē/ or /ei/ [eː] [eː]2 ner (down), reza (journey v.)
/ai/ [æi] [ai] Scy. fail/Sv. fel (failure/wrong)
/ī/ [iː] [ei]3 kniʋ (knife)
/i/ [i] [i] or [ei̭] brink (brink), sil (herring)
/o/ no info [ʊ] or [eʊ̭]4 ondra (lower), gold (gold)
/ō/ “English oh [eʊ] sol (sun)
/ū/ [ʉː]?? [øʉ] skruʋa (screw)
/ȳ/ [yː] [øʏ] sky (sky), myra (ant)
/ǣ/ [əe] [ai] or [ɛː] knæ (knee)
/ø̄/ “i in bird [øː]5 rød (red), bøste (loin/flank/ham)
/ɔ̄/ [eʊ] nål (needle), see ō
/b/ [b] [b] bæra (carry), flab (mouth)
/d/ [d] [d] dra (drag/pull)
/f/ [f] [f] fæ (cattle)
/h/ [h] [h]
/j/ [j] [ɪ̭] jord (earth)
/l/ [l] [l] luka (weed v.)
/m/ [m] [m]
/p/ [p] [p]
/t/ [t] [t]
/g/ and /j/ [g] and [j] [g] and [ɪ]
/z/ [z] [s] snaka (talk)
/s/ [s] [s] Bh. sten/Scy. stain (stone)
/r/ [r] [ʁ]
/k/ and /ɕ/ [k], [t͡ɕ] and [ɕ] [k], [t͡ɕ] and [ɕ]
/n/, /ɲ/ and /ŋ/ [n], [ɲ] and [ŋ] [n] and [ŋ] springa (chink/slit)
/ʋ/ [ʋ] [ʋ] kiʋa (row/quarrel v.)

1 Since the sources predate IPA, Prince doesn’t mention it and it doesn’t exist in Danish, my sources really don’t say what it sounds like, but [ɑʊ] is likely.

2 [eː] I am pretty confident that this sound isn’t a common realization of /ē/ in NW Scania, since I grew up in NW Scania and I can pronounce it in speech only with very much difficulty. [ei̭] possible.

3 actually [ei̭ː] is the notation in Lucazin p. 27. Certainly, in the NW, the i is pronounced longer than the e.

4 [o] is my guess for both accents.

5 This should probably be a diphthong instead.

Literature used:
Utkast till ortografi över Skånska Språket (2010), M Lucazin.
The Danish Dialect of Bornholm (1924) John Dyneley Prince.
Bornholmsk Ordbog (1908) J C S Espersen & Konglige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.

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Whoever has, to him more shall be given — Why? http://www.weihos.eu/2016/04/whoever-has-to-him-more-shall-be-given-why/ http://www.weihos.eu/2016/04/whoever-has-to-him-more-shall-be-given-why/#comments Mon, 25 Apr 2016 00:35:12 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=995

For to the one who has, more will be given, and he will have an abundance, but from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away. — Matthew 13:12, ESV.

Coins — a portion can be called a mina

A friend brought up this verse recently and said it has been abused and interpreted to mean that it would be fair to redistribute resources from persons who have less to those who have more. Is Christ the Anti-Robin-Hood? Such an interpretation should be rejected, of course, with ease by any Christian, but a few questions remain:

1. What does Matthew 13:12 actually mean?
2. What can we do to prevent such abusive interpretations?

Statements similar to Matthew 13:12 occur in Luke 8:10, Mark 4:25, Matthew 25:29 and Luke 19:26 for a total of five places. The last two are the parable of the servants who got money to manage until their lord returned. Let’s look at them side by side!

Matthew 25:14-30 Luke 19:12-27
Preceeding context: ten virgins with lamps, waiting for the bridegroom. Zakeus gives to the poor.
“For it will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property. He said therefore, “A nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom and then return.
To one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one, to each according to his ability. Then he went away. Calling ten of his servants, he gave them ten minas, and said to them, ‘Engage in business until I come.’
He who had received the five talents went at once and traded with them, and he made five talents more.
So also he who had the two talents made two talents more.
But he who had received the one talent went and dug in the ground and hid his master’s money.
But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man to reign over us.’
Now after a long time the master of those servants came and settled accounts with them. When he returned, having received the kingdom, he ordered these servants to whom he had given the money to be called to him, that he might know what they had gained by doing business.
And he who had received the five talents came forward, bringing five talents more, saying, ‘Master, you delivered to me five talents; here I have made five talents more.’ The first came before him, saying, ‘Lord, your mina has made ten minas more.’
His master said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.’ And he said to him, ‘Well done, good servant! Because you have been faithful in a very little, you shall have authority over ten cities.’
And he also who had the two talents came forward, saying, ‘Master, you delivered to me two talents; here I have made two talents more.’ And the second came, saying, ‘Lord, your mina has made five minas.’
His master said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.’ And he said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’
He also who had received the one talent came forward, saying, ‘Master, I knew you to be a hard man, reaping where you did not sow, and gathering where you scattered no seed, so I was afraid, and I went and hid your talent in the ground. Here you have what is yours.’ Then another came, saying, ‘Lord, here is your mina, which I kept laid away in a handkerchief; for I was afraid of you, because you are a severe man. You take what you did not deposit, and reap what you did not sow.’
But his master answered him, ‘You wicked and slothful servant! You knew that I reap where I have not sown and gather where I scattered no seed? Then you ought to have invested my money with the bankers, and at my coming I should have received what was my own with interest. He said to him, ‘I will condemn you with your own words, you wicked servant! You knew that I was a severe man, taking what I did not deposit and reaping what I did not sow? Why then did you not put my money in the bank, and at my coming I might have collected it with interest?’
So take the talent from him and give it to him who has the ten talents. And he said to those who stood by, ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has the ten minas.’
For to everyone who has will more be given, and he will have an abundance. But from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away. ‘I tell you that to everyone who has, more will be given, but from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.
And cast the worthless servant into the outer darkness. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’
But as for these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slaughter them before me.’”
Succeeding context: The son of man will seperate sheep from goats. Jesus riding into Jerusalem on assback.

Why are the two versions different?

A common mistake would be to try to find “spiritual equivalents” of the characters in the story. Please don’t try to do that or you will never understand its sense! A first observation could be that a person who reap where he hasn’t sown and who slaughters his political opponents can’t be worthy of immitation or an example for Christians. But that same person caused the wealthy servant to become wealthier and the relatively poor guy to lose everything.

Craig A Evans, in Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies points out that “it is hard to imagine how an agrarian audience, for the most part peasants, could have heard this parable and understood the master in a favorable sense.” He proceeds to show the similarities between Luke’s version of this parable and the case of Herod Archelaus (23 BC – ca 18 CE), who’s story was told by Flavius Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews XVII: 9-11:

Luke verse 14
But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man to reign over us.’

Antiquities XVII:9,4
At the same time also did Antipas, another of Herod’s sons, sail to Rome, in order to gain the government; being buoyed up by Salome with promises that he should take that government; and that he was a much honester and fitter man than Archelaus for that authority … And when he was come to Rome, all his relations revolted to him; not out of their good-will to him, but out of their hatred to Archelaus … Sabinus also, by letters, accused Archelaus to Caesar.

Luke verse 27
‘But as for these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slaughter them before me.’

Antiquities XVII:9,5
And what he most aggravated in his pleading was the slaughter of those about the temple, and the impiety of it, as done at the festival; and how they were slain like sacrifices themselves, some of whom were foreigners, and others of their own country, till the temple was full of dead bodies: and all this was done, not by an alien, but by one who pretended to the lawful title of a king …

(this paragraph is speculative)
Luke’s gospel is addressed to a Theofilus, and one possibility is that this Theofilus was a former or serving high priest. If so, this parable would be particularily effective in persuading him and the other priests to appreciate the relatively poor members of society who dared challenge oppressors when richer persons avoided conflict at a high cost, for they would remember the conflicts their predecessors had with Archelaus.

Matthew’s version is probably firmly rooted in the practises of contemporary society as well. It is still a fact that society gives more wealth to people who have but not to the have-nots. If you have several years without a job in your CV, you will probably not get a new job. If you are a man and don’t have a job, good luck getting a wife or girlfriend, and so on.

In Matthew’s version the servants were alotted different amounts of money. How about Luke? The Greek word used is μνα which is a loanword from Semitic languages. It can refer to a portion of money or a fixed sum — 100 drachmas (or 400). This means a talent was at least 15 minas but perhaps 60. From the way the word μνα is used in Luke verses 16 and 18 it seems it can’t mean portion but must represent a fixed weight of metal, but then the two versions contradict each other.

The ealiest textual evidence are from codices Vaticanus, Sinaiticus and the Sinaitic Palimpsest, thus bringing us back to ca 375 CE. We have reason to believe the parable was in Marcion’s version since Tertullian mentions it in Adversus Marcionem IV:37. An interesting detail however is that in the Gothic version, it translates μνα to skatts in the problematic verses 16 and 18, but to dails (plural dailos) in verses 13 and 25. Dails correspond to English dole, Swedish dēl and Scanian /dail/, so it is plain, for a speaker of a Germanic language, to see that the translater took μνα to sometimes mean portion/lot/dole, in spite of verses 16 and 18. Doesn’t it seem like we are very close to falsifying the contradiction but need perhaps one more clue?

Now, what does this mean in Matthew 13:12? At this point the meaning will be clear to us if we simply read from verse 10:

And His disciples came and asked Him, “Why do you speak to them in figurative language?” “Because,” He replied, “while to you it is granted to know the secrets of the Kingdom of the Heavens, to them it is not. For whoever has, to him more shall be given, and he shall have abundance; but whoever has not, from him even what he has shall be taken away. I speak to them in figurative language for this reason, that while looking they do not see, and while hearing they neither hear nor understand. — Matthew 13:10-14, Weymouth.

Unlike silver, certain insights are capable to reach good persons spontaneously. Once there, they will prepare a person’s heart and mind to both appreciate and understand the treasures of knowledge that Jesus wanted to share. On the other hand, if somebody’s motives are bad, why should such a person be taught Christianity? If the keys to heaven were handed out to theives, pretty soon the air would be gone. If they were handed to God’s enemies, when the angels woke up their wings would have been cut off. No, not really, but you get the point.

Give not that which is holy to the dogs, nor throw your pearls to the swine; otherwise they will trample them under their feet and then turn and attack you. — Matthew 7:6.

2. What can we do to prevent such abusive interpretations?

Not much, unfortunately, but one item is to follow our lord’s advice and not throw pearls to swines. We tend to expect that other people will react to the text in the same way that we do, for you know others as you know your self. But the more bad people who know what the bible teaches, the more they will abuse the text. To the contrary, the more knowledge good people have, the harder it becomes to abuse the authority of holy scripture.

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Wairþan — ain waurd bruk http://www.weihos.eu/2016/02/wairthan-ain-waurd-bruk/ http://www.weihos.eu/2016/02/wairthan-ain-waurd-bruk/#respond Tue, 16 Feb 2016 23:48:13 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=921 Let’s look at this very used and useful Gothic word. Its meaning is pretty clear. From corresponding words in Latin and Sanskrit, we get the meaning to turn, and in analogy with the English word, wairþan is used in expressions like “turn into X”. It is still used in many Germanic languages in one form or another. For example Svensk Etymologisk Ordbok mentioned that the Scanian expression ʋuren (how something turns out relative to expectations) is a form of the perfect participle.

Common uses are:
1. to become

Ïbai jah jus wileiþ þamma siponjos wairþan? — John 9:27.
If even you want his disciples to become(?)

blindai ussaiƕand, jah haltai gaggand — Matthew 11:5.
blind see, and lame walk
Great, but how do we say leprous encleanify? We don’t. Like in English we rewrite it with a helping verb — namely wairþan:
blindai ussaiƕand, jah haltai gaggand, þrutsfillai hrainjai wairþand

2. to describe stochastic outcomes, mainly nature

Wegs mikils warþ ïn marein, swaswe þata skip gahuliþ wairþan fram wegim — Matthew 8:24.
Wave high there was at sea, so the ship covered to be(come) by waves

Another example of this use is the fixed expression warþ þan which is very useful for story telling. It occurs 15 times in the gospels:

Ref W&H R&P SyP Sinaitic palimp.
Matthew 7:28 και εγενετο και εγενετο ܘܗܘܐ ܕܟܕ ܘܟܕ
Luke 1:8 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܗܘܐ ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܗܘܐ ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ
Luke 1:11 omit omit omit omit
Luke 2:1 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܗܘܐ
Luke 2:6 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܘܗܘܐ ܕܟܕ ܘܟܕ
Luke 3:21 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܟܕ
Luke 6:6 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ non ext.
Luke 8:22 εγενετο δε και εγενετο ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܗܘܐ
Luke 8:40 εν δε εγενετο δε omit ܘܟܕ
Luke 9:37 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܘܗܘܐ ܘܟܗܘ
Luke 9:51 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܘܗܘܐ ܕܟܕ ܘܟܕ
Luke 9:57 και εγενετο δε ܘܟܕ ܘܟܕ
Luke 16:22 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܗܘܐ
Luke 18:35 εγενετο δε εγενετο δε ܘܟܕ ܘܟܕ
(John 10:22) εγενετο τοτε εγενετο δε ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܗܘܐ ܗܘܐ

The table shows the text of Wescott&Hort’s Alexandrian Greek edition, Robinson & Pierpont’s Byzantine Greek edition, the Eastern Classical Syriac Peshitta and the Old Classical Syriac Sinaitic Palimpsest respectively, in the places where the Gothic version has warþ þan.

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EU are here. http://www.weihos.eu/2016/01/eu-are-here/ http://www.weihos.eu/2016/01/eu-are-here/#respond Sat, 09 Jan 2016 12:06:18 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=909 History repeats. The history of European religion has a cycle of 750 years and recently tipped over into a form of simplistic search for a strong leader. This state has previously led Europe into Islam and Catholicism.

Eu are here.

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Maþetes describes the early Cristians http://www.weihos.eu/2015/12/mathetes-describes-the-early-cristians/ http://www.weihos.eu/2015/12/mathetes-describes-the-early-cristians/#respond Mon, 14 Dec 2015 13:35:47 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=903 OPINION In Ante-Nicene Fathers, we find this description of the early Christians from, probably, the 2nd century:

For the Christians are distinguished from other men neither by country, nor language, nor the customs which they observe. For they neither inhabit cities of their own, nor employ a peculiar form of speech, nor lead a life which is marked out by any singularity. The course of conduct which they follow has not been devised by any speculation or deliberation of inquisitive men; nor do they, like some, proclaim themselves the advocates of any merely human doctrines.
But, inhabiting Greek as well as barbarian cities, according as the lot of each of them has determined, and following the customs of the natives in respect to clothing, food, and the rest of their ordinary conduct, they display to us their wonderful and confessedly paradoxical method of life.
They dwell in their own countries, but simply as sojourners. As citizens, they share in all things with others, and yet endure all things as if foreigners. Every foreign land is to them as their native country, and every land of their birth as a land of strangers.
They marry, as do all [others]; they beget children; but they do not cast away fœtuses. They have a common table, but not a common bed. They are in the flesh, but they do not live after the flesh. They pass their days on earth, but they are citizens of heaven. They obey the prescribed laws, and at the same time surpass the laws by their lives. They love all men, and are persecuted by all.

So, the Cristians were not distinguished from other men by the customs which they observed. Why is this important? It is important because if your customs are incompatible with the customs of other men, you will not be able to communicate with them. If you can’t communicate with men who don’t belong to your group, you will not be able to see through lies about these people that someone from your own community wants to establish, or established as fact long ago. Such lies could even make you scared of these men.

Religious leaders know this, so they try to set you apart — holy in an unnecessary way — as so different from other people that you dare not talk to them lest you become contaminated by their unpious manners, and they dare not talk to you lest they get ensnared by pharisaic logic and dragged down into a black hole of cultic subjection under a god that always seems to decide according to the wishes of a group of men who also publish that god’s decrees, or perhaps interpret them.

It would seem that the best solution is to do like the early Christians did according to Mathetes — to be very much like everybody else and feel free to talk to any member of society. (Luke 5:30-32) However, what do we do when society itself embraces extreme customs?

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Transcription of P967 — Esther http://www.weihos.eu/2015/10/transcription-of-p967-esther/ http://www.weihos.eu/2015/10/transcription-of-p967-esther/#respond Sat, 03 Oct 2015 19:04:16 +0000 http://www.weihos.eu/?p=810 Papyrus 967 is an early witness to the text of the Translation of the Seventy — the Septuagint (LXX). The lines contain on average 24 characters shaped like 2-3rd century CE.

The whole story is less focused on the persons involved — their names and relatives — than it is in later manuscripts.

Colours used:
Red — misspelled
Green — spelling variation
Purple — deviate materially from the text of Ralph & Hahnhart (RH)
Blue — added or omitted in comparison with RH
Brownscale — sections displaced to the end in Jerome’s Vulgate
[Brighter — outside page or illegible and supplied from RH]

It was transcribed from these images.

A:1-6 (1/6)
[ετους δ]ευτερου βασιλευοντος [Year’s s]econd of reign (as king)
αρταξερξου του μεγαλου´ τη μια̣ of Artaxerxes The Great, the first
του μηνος1 ενυπνιον ειδον2 Μαρ of the month a dream saw Mor-
δοχαιος ο του ϊα̣ειρου του σεμεει decai the of Jair’s of Shime-
ου του κισαιου εκ της φυλης βενι i’s of Kish’s out of the tribe Benj-
αμειν´ ανθρωπος ϊουδαιος οικω_ amin, a man Jewish livin’
εν σουσοις τη πολει´ ανθρωπος in Susa the city, a man
μεγας θεραπευων εν τη αυλη great he is attending in the court
του βασιλεως´ ην δε εκ της αχμα king’s, was however from the capt-
λωσιας3 ην4 ηχμαλωτευσεν να ives was he captured Ne-
βουχοδονεσορ βασιλευς βαβυ buchadnezzar king Baby-
λωνος εξ ϊερουσαλημ μετα ϊε lon’s out of Jerusalem with Je-
χονιου του βασιλεως της ιουδα̣ι̣ας coniah’s the king of Judah
και τουτο αυτου το ενυπνιον [κ]αι and this his the dream [a]nd
ϊδου φωναι και θορυβος βρον look voices and noise rumb-
ται και σεισμος ταραχος επ̣ι̣ les and shaking tumult upon
γης´ και ϊδου δο5 δρακοντε[ς] μ[ε] earth, and look two reptile[s] g[r-]
γαλοι ετοιμοι´ προσηλθ[ον αμ] eate prepared, to advan[ce b-]
φοτεροι παλαιειν´ κ[αι εγενετο] oth wrestled, a[nd became]
αυτων φωνη μεγ̣α̣[λη και τη φω] their voice grea[te and the voi-]
νη αυτων ητο̣[ιμασθη παν εθνος] ce theirs was pr[epared whole people]
ει[ς πολεμον ωστε πολεμησαι] i[nto fight so that to fight]
δ̣ι[καιων εθνος και ιδου ημερα] ri[ghteous people and look a day]
1. Νισα
2. ειδεν
3. αιχμαλωσιας
4. ης
⸆ ο
⸆ της
5. δυο
A:12-17 (2/6)
ευνουχων του βασιλε[ως των] eunuchs of the kin[g that]
φυλασσοντων την α[υλην ηκου] guarding the co[urt-hall (he) hea]
σεν τε αυτων τους λογισμους κα̣ι̣ rd both their deliberations and
τας μεριμνας αυτων εξηραυ concerns their (he) found
νησεν´ και εμαθεν οτι ετοιμα out, and learned that (they) pre-
ζουσι1 τας χειρας αυτων επιβα pared the hands theirs to sei-
λειν αρταξερ̣ξη τω βαλει2´ και υ ze Artaxerxes the king, and (he)
πεδ̣ιξεν τω βασιλει περι αυ̣τ̣ω̣_ forewarned the king about the(m)
και εξητασεν ο βασιλευς τους and interrogated the king the
δυο ευνουχους και ομολογησαν two eunuchs and (they) conceding
τες εξηχθησαν3´ και εγραψεν ο were led out, and wrote the
βασιλευς τους λογους τουτους king the words these
εις μνημοσυνον´ και μαρδοχαι in remembrance, also Mordec-
ος εγραψεν περι των λογων ai wrote about events
τουτων´ καϊ επεταξεν ο βασι these, and appointed the ki-
λευς μαρδοχαιω θεραπευειν ng Mordecai to be an attendant
εν τη αυλη´ και εδωκεν αυτω in the court-hall, and (he) gave him
[δομ]ατα περι τουτων´ κα̣ι ην α [pay]ment for that, and (there) was Ha-
[μα]ν̣ αμαδαθου βουγαιος ενδο [ma]n Hammedatha’s (a) Bougaj estee-
[ξος εν]ωπιον του βασιλεως´ και [med in] presence of the king, and
[εζητησε]ν κακοποιησαι τον [(he) sought] (to) bully the
[μαρδοχαιο]ν και τον λα̣ον αυτ̣ο̣υ´ [Mordeca]i and the people his,
[υπερ των δυο] ευνου[χ]ων [το]υ [for sake of the two] eunu[ch]s of [th]e
[βασιλεως και εγενε]το̣ [μετα] [king and it happen] ed[after]
1. ετοιμαζουσιν
2. βασιλει
3. απηχθησαν
1:6-10 (3/6)
[και κα]ρπασινοις τεταμενοις επι [and l]inen tensioned bou-
σ̣χ̣ι̣νι̣οις1 βυσσινοις και πορφυροις nd up linen cloth and purple
επι κυβοις χρυσοις και αργυροις επι by cubes golden and silvery on
στυλοις παρεινοις και λιθοις2 κλει pillars marble and stony couch-
ναι χρυσαι και αργυραι´ επι λιθοστρω es golden and silvery, on paveme-
του ζμαραγδιτου λιθου και πιπι nt of emerald stone and mother of
νου3 και παρεινου λιθου και στρω pearl and marble stone and sofa-
μναι επιφανεις4 ποικιλως διην fabric translucent embroidered
τιςμεναι κυκλω’ ροδα πεπασμε with flowers around’ roses laid
να´ ποτηρια χρυσα και αργυρα´ και out, cups gold and silver, and
ανθρακιον5 κιλικιον6 προκειμε carbuncle cloth for show
νον απο ταλαντων τρισμυριων worth talents thirty thousand
οινος πολυς και ηδυς´ ον αυτος wine lots of and sweet, which himself
ο βασιλευς επινεν´ ο δε ποτος ου the king drank, the however drinking
τος ου κατα προκειμενον νομον this not according to published law
εγενετο´   ουτως δε ηθελησεν it happened,   so however desired
ο βασιλευς´ και επεταξεν τοις the king, and put on the
οικονομοις ποιησαι το θελημ̣[α] housholders to do the wil[l]
αυτου και των ανθρωπων [και] his and the people’s [and]
αστιν η βασιλεισσα επο̣[ιησε] Astin the queen arr[anged]
ποτον ταις γυναιξι??????7 βα] drinking the wome[n ?????? ki]
σιλ̣ευς αρταξερξη̣[ς εν δε τη η] ng Artaxerxe[s on however the d]
μ[ερα] τη εβδο̣[μη ηδεως γενομε] a[y] the seve[nth pleasantly beca]
νο̣[ς ο βασιλευς ειπεν τω αμαν] me [the king said to Haman]
1. σχοινιοις
2. λιθινοις
3. πιννινου
4. διαφανεις
5. ανθρακινον
6. κυλικιον = small glass
κιλικιον in the sense cloth is not so likely since it was a coarse kind of cloth used for sails (LSJ)
7. εν τοις βασιλειοις οπου ο
However only about 6 characters fit in.
1:15-19 (4/6)
κατους1 νομους ως δει πο̣ι̣[η̣σαι ] according to the laws as it is neces[sary ]
τη βασιλεισση´ οτι ουκ επο̣[ιησεν] the queen, that not d[id]
τα υπο του βασιλεως προσταχθεν that by the king ordain-
τα δια των ευνουχων´ και ειπεν ed through the eunuchs, and said
ο μουχα̣ιος προς τον βασιλεα και Mouchaios to the king and
τους α̣ρχοντας´ ου τον βασιλεα the generals, not the king
μο[νο]ν ηδικησεν η βασιλισσα´ o[nl]y injusticed the queen,
αλλα και παντας τους αρχοντας but also all the generals
και τους ηγουμενους του βασιλε and the leaders of the kin-
ως´ και επιδιηγησατο αυτοις τα g, and it has been related to them
ρημα̣τ̣α̣ της βασιλεισης´ και ως2 αν the statement of the queen, and how
τειπ̣ε̣ν̣ τω βασιλει αρταξερξη´ (she) defied the king Artaxerxes,
ουτως σημερον αι τυραννιδες therefore today the executive (wives)
αι λοιπαι των αρχοντων περ the others of the leaders Per-
σων και μηδων´ ακουσασαι τα sian’s and Mede’s, hearing what
[τ]ω βασιλει λεχθεντα υπ αυτης´ [th]e king was told by her,
[τολ]μησωσιν3 ομοιως ατιμασαι [(will) d]are in the same way to disdain
[τους] ανδρας εαυτων4´ ει ου5 δοκει [the]men theirs, so that if not pleases
[τω βασιλ]ει προσταξατω βασιλει [the kin]g (issue) command roy-
[κον και] γ̣ραφητω κατα τους νο [al and] write according to the l-
[μους μη]δ̣ων και περσων´ και [aws of Me]des and Persians, and
[μη αλλως χρη]σασθω και μη6 ει [not otherwise eng]age and not (may she)
[σελθατω ετι η βασιλισσα πρ]ος [enter even the queen t]o
[αυτον και την βασιλειαν αυ]της [him and the queenship h]er
1. κατα τους
⸆ αστιν
⸆ αστιν
2. (και γαρ διηγησατο αυτοις τα ρηματα της
βασιλισσης και ως αντειπεν τω βασιλει) ως ουν

3. τολμησουσιν
4. εαυτον
5. ουν
6. μηδε
2:2-6 (5/6)
[του βασιλεως ζη]τηθητω τω βα [of the king se]arched for the k-
[σιλει κορ]α̣σ̣ια αφθαρτα1 καλα τω [ing gi]rls of (lasting) quality good in
[ειδει]και κ̣αταστησει ο βασιλευς [appearance] an[d (he) will] appoint the king
κω̣μα̣ρχας εν πασαις χωραις της mayors in all lands of the
βασιλειας [α]υτου´ και επιλεξατω kingdom [h]is, and they elect-
σαν κορασ[ι]α παρθενια2 καλα τω ed gir[l]s maiden good in
ειδει εις σουσαν την πολιν appearance into Susa the city
εις τον γυναικωνα´ και παραδο into the harem, and handed them
θητωσαν τω ευνουχω του βα to the eunuch of the ki-
σιλεως τω φυλακι των γυναι ng that watches the har-
κων´ και δοθητω ζμημα3 και em, and they were given cosmetics and
η λοιπη επιμελεια και γυνη the other coddely-care and woman
η εαν4 αρεση τω βασιλει βασι the whichever pleased the king will re-
λευσει αντι αστιν´ και ηρεσεν ign in place of Astin, and pleased
τω βασιλει το πραγμα και εποι the king the matter and he did
ησεν ´ και ανθρωπος ην ιουδαιος (so) , and a man (there) was Jewish
εν σουσοις τη πολει´ και ονο[μα] in Susa the city, and nam[e]
αυτω μαρδοχαιος ο του ϊαειρ[ου] his Mordochai Jair[‘s]
του σεμεειου του κισιου̣ [εκ φυλης] Shimei’s Kish’s [of tribe]
βενεαμιν´ ος ην αιχ[μαλωτος] Benjamin, who was a ca[ptive]
εξ ϊερουσαλημ’ ον5[??????????] from Jerusalem ??[??????????]
[να]βουχοδονε[σορ βασιλευς] [Ne]buchadnes[sar king]
β[αβυλωνος]´[ και ην τουτω παις] B[abylonian],[ and was this child]
1. αφθορα
2. παρθενικα
3. σμηγμα expected to be spelled σζμηγμα or ζμηγμα see σμηγμασιν in verse 12.
⸆ η
4. αν
⸆ ουτως
5. ην ηχμαλωτευσεν
2:11-15 (6/6)
[καθ εκαστην δε ημεραν ο μαρ] [dayly however Mor-]
δοχαιος περιεπατ[ει ????1 συμ] dechai walked [by ???? turn]
βησεται´ ουτος δε [η̣]ν̣ [και]ρ̣[ος κορα] up, this however was [ti]m[e a gir-]
σιου εισελθιν προ[ς] τον βασιλεα l’s to enter t[o] the king
οταν επληρωσεν2 μηνας ιβ´ ου whenever fulfills months 12, there-
τως γαρ αναπληρ[ο]υνται αι ημε fore fullfill the days
ραι της θεραπειας μ̣ηνας εξ’ of treatment months six
αλειφομενα̣ι̣ εν σ̣ζ̣υρ̣ινω3 ελαιω getting anointed with myrrh oil
και μηνας εκ4 εν τοις αρωμασιν and months six with the perfumes
και εν τοις σζμηγμα̣σ̣ιν και το5 and with the cosmetics and the
ειςπορευονται6 πρ̣ος τον βασι getting led in to the king,
λεα´ και ω7 εαν ειπη παραδωσι8 and to whoever he talked to they would fasten
αυτην9 συνερχεσθαι10 αυτω11 απο her to escort for him from
του γυναικο̶ωνος εως των βα the harem to the ki-
σιλειων δειλης εισπορευεται ng in the afternoon enters
και προς ημεραν αποτρεχει and towards the (new) day (she) runs away
εις τον γυναικωνα τον δευτε into the harem the sec-
[ρ]ον ου γαι ο ευνουχος του βασι [o]nd where Gai the eunuch of the k-
[λ]εως ο φυλαξ των γυναικων [i]ng (is) the watcher of the harem
[κα]ι̣ ουκετι εισπορευεται προς [an]d no more enters to
[τον βα]σιλεια12 εαν μη κληθη [the pa]lace unless called (upon)
[ονοματι]´ εν δε τω αναπληρουσθαι [by name], in however the fullfillment
[τον χρον]ον εσθηρ του13 εισελθιν [of tim]e Ester of going in
[προς τον βα]σιλεα´ ουδεν ηθετη̣ [to the ki]ng, without nulli-
[σεν ων αυτη] ενετιλατο [ο ευ]νο̣υ [fied of that to her] enumerated [the eu]nu-
[χος ο φυλας των γυναικων η]ν̣/ [ch that watched the harem wa]s/
1. κατα την αυλην την γυναικειαν επισκοπων τι Εστηρ
2. αναπληρωση
3. σμυρνινω
4. εξ
⸆ των γυναικων
5. τοτε
6. εισπορευεται
7. ο
8. παραδωσει
9. αυτη
10. συνεισερχεσθαι
11. αυτη
12. βασιλεα
13. της θυγατρος Αμιναδαβ αδελφου πατρος Μαρδοχαιον
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